To see your partition scheme type:
# Scheme example
NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT sda 8:0 0 465G 0 disk *SSD* ├─sda1 8:1 0 499M 0 part ├─sda2 8:2 0 100M 0 part /boot ├─sda3 8:3 0 16M 0 part ├─sda4 8:4 0 185G 0 part └─sda5 8:5 0 200G 0 part / sdb 8:16 0 931.5G 0 disk *HDD* ├─sdb1 8:17 0 400G 0 part /home ├─sdb2 8:18 0 24G 0 part [SWAP] └─sdb3 8:19 0 508G 0 part sdc 8:32 1 7.5G 0 disk *Flash Drive* └─sdc1 8:33 1 7.5G 0 part
For now you shouldn't see any mount points unless you mount partitions to them, this will be done later.
# Dual boot disks partitioning
If you're making dual boot system with Windows, then EFI System Partition has been created with Windows installation.
You must mount it as a
/boot for the Linux bootloader.
This will destroy all data on chosen drive. Use with caution!
sda in case you had installed Windows for dual boot system.
Now simply wipe drive with
gdisk /dev/sdX # where X is your drive name
RET first, then
x for advanced config and
z for zap.
And now create a new one:
cgdisk /dev/sdX # where X is your drive name
It will warn you "Non-GPT or damaged disk detected. This program will attempt to convert to GPT form or repair damage to GPT data structures, but may not succeed. Use gdisk or another disk reapir tool if you have a damaged GPT disk.", this is general case just skip it.
The upper part of the screen will show you disk(sdaX) with free space to create new partition,
in the bottom part of the screen there is a menu with [ New ] selector is picked by default, just press
Now it's asking to allocate minimum and maximum space sector starting from 2048 by default, press
RET for the minimum and put your desired space.
The wise idea will be to devide separate discs by their logic, dynamic and static.
I'll put both Linux and Windows dynamic files on SSD ( #sda).
- sda1,3 Microsoft reserved space. (Dual boot case: Windows partitioning system created them automatically.)
- sda2 To boot the system it must be exactly
EF00. (Dual boot case: The reason of Windows installation on the first place, created automatically.)
- sda4 Windows partition. (Dual boot case: You'll need this space to install Windows)
- sda5 I'm personally using around 500G for the
root, but it could be less: ~50-100G - should be fine; depend on your needs and usage, because it's possible to make system really tiny.
HDD(#sdb) - The best usecase for HDD today to be used as a user static files storage e.g.: music, projects, configurations, et cetera...
|sdb1||400G||8300||home||linux file system|
|sdb2||24G||8200||swap||1.5 of my RAM memory (16G)|
|sdb3||508G||0700||winhome||microsoft basic data|
/homeplace for the user's linux static files.
SWAPdepends on your RAM quantity. Usually you should take x1 or x1.5 of your RAM.
So if you have 16G of RAM, you should be fine with 16G of SWAP disc space.
If you will take less RAM, there is still a good chance of successfull hibernating.
- sdb3 (Dual boot case: It will contain static Windows files.)
You also have choice to use space to mount e.g.:
# Mount partitions to the folders
mount /dev/sda5 /mnt
Next we need to create some new folders in our
mkdir /mnt/boot mkdir /mnt/home
Mount them accordingly:
mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/home
# Format the partitions
mkswap /dev/sdb2 swapon /dev/sdb2
mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda5 mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1
y if you have this warning:
/dev/sdxY contains a ext4 file system
mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sda1
Boot must be Fat32 as UEFI requirement.
You already have EFI partition if you installed Windows.